= 8 DEC!












Andalusian Sketches . . . WJJ«« 49—169

Adventures of a Naval Officer * * *°,^ Vty® . 252

Arts, Fine . . '. ,' .94?^' *?0.^. 468

Address to Death V. ., ' . ' . * . * * ;' 647

Bear, Ape, and Pig . ' ,3nM . )ffl ^ *",/ v 8

Birth-day, the . . * ^J (-'2'^ ) *.mt '"; 145

Boarding-House, No. II. .w ^ 2^ wslkbA ***" 177

British Colonies, the . >* - .'• . .^ . 160

Black Caribs— a Tale , * . > . 303

Burns, Farewell Address to . ' . -J. . . 629

Bramsby Hall, Goings on at . *. . . 288

Caesars, the Wives of, No. III. .- '*'-*S - . 129

Citizen's Campaign . . . '^^ . 207 Clavigo, a Tragedy . V . e^foi. 317 437

Couplet on Friendship •<? ^ 382

Coquet Side, and the Legend of Rough-Riding Will mJl fl 493

China and its Trade . . s' *>'•£ '^ TJS . 554

Castle Builder, the . - , . : . ; ! .noiJ: &. J. 621

Cabinet Affairs . . . ' » . H bio r.., 577

Catastrophe of Twelve Hours, a Tale fa a ro;v»ft I ,Vis 661 Dramatic Monopoly . . io.e3 r/1- ic n^fifi 1

Drunkenness . . . . .1 \n»tn 349

Duck and Serpent . . ff ^? }{?U lok 436

Dramatic Literature . . i',?»'i',: . r*o«^ _, 631

England, Ancient Language of » . . ,I;j . 673

Frogs and the Bullrush .-,'». . . k>ix< «*«>< 510



Galley, Nights in the . 75—161—269—389—542—600—679 Greece and Rome ...... 327

Guayra, Zamang of ..... 528

Gems from the Polish Campaign .... 530

Hill, St. Catharine's . . . . . 361

Ireland and her Commentators .... 608

July, Episode of ...... 86

Log, Leaves from a ..... 28

Louis Quinze, Le Mort de . . . . .96

Literati, Lessons for the . . 126—265—559—682

Life, a Sketch ...... 192

Lions, Wolves, and Sheep— a Fable .... 237

Literary Intelligence , 347

Mirabeau, Early Life of . . . .92

Month (Notes of the) . 97—210—331—451-569—656

Music 111—347

Ministry, the late and the present . . . 157

Memorandums (Secret) of the late Bradshaw Ellworthy . 144

Mad Poet's Address to the Moon . . . . 420

Milton, John . . . . . 619

Manchester, Panorama of ..... 536

New South Wales ..... 42

Naval Reminiscences ...... 657

Ode—Sir E. Brydges' ..... 9

Presumptuous Poetry . . , . 14

Past Recollections .... 70

Poor, the Rights of . . . ., .81

Phantom Land . . . . . 283—410—549

Plagiarists, a Table for ..... 388

Portugal, Sketches in . .415

Poor, a Word for .421

Parliament, Destruction of both Houses of . . 469

Pandemonium, or Tactics of the Stock Exchange . . 649

Rome, on a Drawing of .... 27

Relation that took a liking to me . . . .76

Review, Monthly, of Literature, &c. 105—223—338—456—582—590 Regrets, Sad . .... 48

ftookwood, Songs of ..... 57



Rabbits, the Two . . , . ' . . .376

Red Tartane, the . . ,„-. 383-563-637-649-671

Baffles, Tom . . . >.,;' . .429

•Ravens, the Three . ~. . . -.' . 480

Sea Shore, the . ~™ "~. '. . .41

Stanzas . . ' »*,.•• , . 85

Spanish Liberal, Conversations with a . 195— 238—377 471

Sonnet to the Weed '•>>; ' . -, .Sn . l 286

Sunday Legislation H . . ''. .* . *' . 229

Syria . . iV^ . . . ^u 296

Steam Excursion, the . . . 4 ? irapJ ggQ

Things Theatrical fe-Ji- t&uto 111—227—386—541—689

Thrushes, the Two 4*&t! *. . -*f 's^- .343

Tar, Tale of a . . ,\\ , * B&i*T lt*!** 511

Tories can they take Office . Q.e' . inurri ^ fjgg

Talisman . . % <; ^ ^ «? * ;uJJ°r- 677

Viper and Leech . . . ? r '^ . l ^ . } 8

Vines and Vineyards *;. *.. "°7 . ?flc J 244

Wolf and Shepherd , <r .; ^ '^ *°, *8' [ Jt 409


tnT90*I 8 t9£fj

orfo no



Appeal to Public Opinion on behalf of the Jews, &c. . 107

Annual, the Oriental, for 1835 . . . . 582

Agricultural and Industrial Magazine . . . 690

Animalcules, Natural History of ... 699

Almanac, Comic, for 1835 . . . . ib.

Brother Tragedians, 3 vols. . . . . 110

Biblical Keepsake . . . . . .700

British People, Tales for .... 461

Burke (Edmund) the Works of, &c. . . . . 463

British Costume, History of .... 465

Book Type, Wilson and Sinclair's Specimens of . . 467

Belgium and Holland, 2 vols. .... 583

British Isles, Geography of . . . . 586

Conversations on the Teeth . . . . 108

Channels Islands, 2 vols. ..... 226

Colonies of New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, Obser- vations on . . . . . 343

Court of Sigismund Augustus, 3 vols. . . . 346

Chit Chat, French . . . . . .582

Carrington's, R. J., Collected Poems of, 2 vols, . . 583

Cataract ; a familiar Description of, &c. . . . 695

Charlton, Rev. W. H., Poems by . . . . 227

Des Devoirs des Hommes, &c. .... 462

Deity, the, a Poem, ..... 466

Disquisitions on the Anti-Papal Spirit which produced the Re- formation, &c. . . . . . . 584

Dentition, and some consequent Disorders, . . 587 Daughter's Book. . ., . . . .110

English Scenes and English Civilization, 3 vols. . . 460 Egypt and Mahommed Ali, &c. . . . .107

Encyclopaedia, the Popular; being a General Dictionary of

Arts, &c. ... ... 695



Encyclopaedia, Lardner's, . . . {.. . 679

Fair Spirits, a Vision of, &c.. . . . . 338

French Language, Rules for the Pronunciation of . 346

Faithful, Jacob, . . . . . . 690

Family Worship, . . . ' !. •' , 699

Faust, a Serio-Comic Poem, . . . . . 700

Guide to Jersey, . .. .,. ,,. . . . 346

Gait, John, Literary Life, &c. . . . . . 459

Letter Addressed to the Bishop of Exeter v.. », . 345 Maritime Officers of the East India Company, Claim to Com- pensation . ;<.....- --•.•• . . . . 343

Miriam Coffin ; or, the Whale Fisherman, 3 vols. ". 462

More, Mrs. Hannah, Memoir of, . - *, ^ t 45g

Physiognomy, Founded Physiology, . . . .105

Poems, Sacred, &c. . . . . . 109

Poems, New . . . . . . 223

Poems by Mrs. Richardson . . . .. 346

Practice Book . .; > . ,. . 345

*j Paradise Regained, a Poem . . . . . 461

1 Physiology applied to the Preservation of Health 466

Priestcraft, Popular History of . . . * 583

^ Progress of Literature, &c., Treatise on ." ^ 586

\ Poems by Mrs. Richardson . ^/ ^ - - ggy

> Romance, Library of . . : . . 106

Scott, Sir W., Prose Works . . ; . . '. 341

Solitude, a Poem T . . ' ":rV V 339

Trials and Triumphs . '. . . . .108

Taxation, Illustrations of . . . . , 340

Truth's Triumph . . .^ . . . 588

Useful Arts, Sketch of the State of, 2 vols, ". . 342



VOL. XVIII. JULY, 1834. No. 103.


























XXV. Music Ill





The Index to the last volume given in this number.

The " Wives of the Caesars" arrived too late for insertion this month.

We intended to have given a detailed notice of the " Sir Egerton Brydgesr Autobiography" in our present number ; but, on consideration, we are in- clined to wait until criticism has expended itself, and next month confront the Baronet with the irritable host. We shall then be able to judge be- tween them.

We are much obliged to N. M. for his valuable communication. His papers are safe he will see that his ground is occupied, that is, with regard to the subject of the paper in our possession. We shall be very glad to hear from him.


WE perceive that the Marquis of Clanricarde has introduced into the House of Lords a bill for licensing dramatic performances; at other theatres beyond the two patent ones, hitherto claiming the mo- nopoly of that privilege. We are glad to see that the subject has not been allowed to fall to the ground,* and we hope eventually that genius may be emancipated from the ignoble bondage to which it has been too long condemned. We will not at present enter upon a dis- cussion of the provisions of the noble lord's proposed measure for this good object, many of which we confess and consider exception- able. The main point at present is the grand principle of right or no right to legislate upon the subject, as whatever opposition the bill will meet with will be upon the ground of right, and in defence of vested interest. We are content to view the question in that im- portant and interesting light in the present article. The patentees, like Shylock, " stand here for law," and will have their bond, and proclaim their patents to be invulnerable, sole unique, and eternal. Let us see whether it be " so nominated in the bond."

The two great theatres claim exclusive privileges to enact perform- ances of the stage upon a variety of grounds, which may be reduced to the following two, viz., 1 . The patents granted by Charles II. to Davenant and Killigrew ; 2. " An understood compact," according to Mr. Kemble, between whom existing, however, or under what conditions and penalties, does not appear.

The proposals for extending licences for dramatic performances at other theatres, is opposed upon the grounds; 1. That it would be a violation of the long- vested patent rights of the two great theatres ; - 2. That it would be an infringement of the Royal prerogative. 3. That it would be " a violation of good faith," and an injustice to private property.

These grounds of opposition will be severally replied to, by consi- dering,— 1. The nature of a patent as distinguished from an exclusive right ; and the power of the crown to grant an exclusive right of the nature claimed by the proprietors of the two great theatres. 2. Whe- ther it is a part of the royal prerogative to grant patents or licences for dramatic performances. 3. The title of exclusive right, particu- larly as claimed under the patents of Davenant and Killigrew.

I. The king's grants, which are always a matter of record, are always contained in letters patent (literce patentes), so called, because they are not sealed up, but exposed to public inspection ; and it is a vulgar mistake to suppose that the word patent necessarily implies an exclusive right, though in the more common use of the term, in the present day, the king's letters patent are generally understood to confer the exclusive right of using or practising some new discovery or invention on the inventor or originator. In former times, indeed, the king's letters patent were granted to individuals and corporations, conferring upon them exclusive privileges in various branches of

* Since this article was written, the bill has been rejected by the Lords. Oft Friday last, after a short discussion, Lord Seagrave moved that it be read that day six months, which was carried by a majority of 14.


trade and manufacture, till at length in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., these monopolies were carried to such a grievous height, as to be heavily complained of by Sir Edward Coke, who denounced them to be <e against the ancient and fundamental laws of the realm," and (< against Magna Charta, because they were against the liberty and freedom of the subject and the law of the land." Accord- ingly, in the 21st year of the latter prince's reign, an act was "forcibly and vehemently penned for the suppression of all monopolies," enacting (21 Jac. 1. cap. 3.) that <e all monopolies, commissions, grants, licences, charters, and letters patent, granted to any persons, bodies politic or corporate, for the sole buying, selling, making, working, or using of any thing within this realm, or of any other monopolies) or power, or liberty, fyc. should be void." With respect to the power and all-embracing meaning of this provision, Coke says, " this word (sole) is to be applied to five several things, viz. buying, selling, making, working ; and using, four of which are special, and the last, viz. (sole using) so general, as no monopoly can be raised but shall be within the reach of this statute; and yet for more surety these words (or of any other monopolies) are added."

So hateful had monopolies grown in the eyes of the people, and of the legislature, that the above act was designed to include them in all their possible shapes and varieties. In the next section but one of the same statute, it is declared, that " all persons shall be disabled to have any monopoly, or any such grants as aforesaid ;" and not that only, for that monopolists " were to be punished with the forfeiture of treble damages and double costs, to those whom they attempted to disturb ; and if they procured any action to be stayed by any extra- judicial order, other than the court wherein it was brought, they in- curred the penalties of prcemunire."

From this act were excepted " patents not exceeding the grant of fourteen years, to authors of new inventions ; also patents concerning printing, saltpetre, gun-powder, great ordnance, and shot," as well as grants or privileges conferred by act of Parliament, and all grants or charters to corporations or cities, their customs, &c.

There are several instances on record of the operation of this most important statute. And it was decreed by Judge Croke, and agreed to by C. J. Coke, that " the patent to the College of Physicians, that none practise physic but such as are allowed by them, had not been good, if not confirmed by act of Parliament."

And yet, in face of this statute, and the commentaries upon it above cited, do the managers of Drury Lane and Covent Garden theatres claim the right of sole acting " tragedies, comedies, plays, operas, music-scenes, and all other entertainments of the stage whatsoever," for ever, by virtue of a patent granted nearly two hundred years ago, and which, if it ever pretended to convey such right of monopoly, was in itself ab initio and de facto void, and liable to penal visitation But that such was not the intention on the first granting of the patent to Davenant, by Charles I. in 1639, and which is cited and cancelled by the patents subsequently granted by Charles II. to Davenant and Killigrew, is very evident. This patent of 1639, after giving the licence for building the theatre, collecting the company, and acting




the plays, £c., gives authority to take and receive of such as come to witness the performances, " such sum or sums of money as was, or then after from time to time, should be accustomed to be given or taken in other play-houses and places for the like plays, scenes, present- ments, and entertainments.'" From this passage, it is evident that the original patent to Davenant by Charles I., so far from granting, or even contemplating an exclusive privilege of performance., distinctly recognized the existence of " other play-houses/' and " for the like plays and entertainments." This patent was, in 1662, surrendered to Charles II. to be cancelled, when that monarch renewed the grant, in stronger but still somewhat equivocal terms. The grant generally runs " for us, our heirs, and successors .;" but in the passage, stating that whereas " divers companies of players have taken upon them to act plays publicly in our said cities of London or Westminster, or the suburbs thereof, without any authority for that purpose/' it is simply stated, that " we do hereby declare our dislike of the same, and will and grant," that only Davenant's and Killigrew's companies, " and none others, shall from henceforth" be allowed to perform ; without any pretence, however, at binding his " heirs and successors" to the exclusiveness of the grant. These words declaring " our dislike" of le other stage performances, were evidently very artfully penned ; for the King, as head of the peace, had doubtless a right to express " is " dislike" of what he might think dangerous or inconvenient to the public quiet ; the restrictive passage, however, has never been attempted to be enforced for the suppression of any unlicensed or licensed stage-performances by the patentees, doubtless for the very good reason that such proceedings would at once bring their virtual monopoly into question, and call down the penal vigour of the statute 21, Jac. 1., cap. 3, Certain it is, too, that when Betterton applied to William III. for a separate licence, the lawyers of the day were con-* suited, and they agreed that the grants from Charles II. to Davenant and Killigrew, did not preclude succeeding monarchs from giving similar rights to others ; and a licence was accordingly granted in 1690. We have a later authority to the same effect in Mr. Charles Kemble himself, who conceives that a licence for the legitimate drama granted to another theatre would be a tf breach of the understood compact," though he does not think there would be any legal remedy (a breach of contract without legal remedy !), nor that the grant of Charles II. is binding on his successors. Capt. Forbes also says, it would be no infraction of the law, " but only a violation of good faith."

II. The next ground of opposition to the enfranchising of the the- atrical trade is alleged to be the infringement of the prerogative of the Crown. How the advocates of this opinion will establish the claim of the Crown to the prerogative of licensing theatrical performances, we are at a loss to conceive. A prerogative, in the words of Black- stone, is " a special pre-eminence, which the King hath, over and above all other persons, and out of the ordinary course of the common law, in right of his regal dignity." And hence it follows, that it must .be in its nature singular and eccentrical, that it can only be applied to those rights and capacities which the King enjoys alone, in contra- distinction to others, and not to those which he enjoys in common


with any of his subjects; for if any one prerogative of the Crown could be held in common with the subject, it would cease to be a prero- gative any longer." (I. 239.) Then who could think of viewing in the jealous light of " prerogative/' thus nicely explained, the pri- vilege of licensing stage-players a privilege which, from the earliest period of their occupation, was exercised at discretion by every noble in the land ? As early as the middle of the sixteenth century, for in- stance, we find more than a score of noblemen, Lord Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Lane, the Earl of Warwick, the Lord Chamberlain, &c., besides the Queen herself, having their respec- tive companies of players, who performed, " not only at their lords' houses, but publicly in other places under their licence and protection." We gather, from various theatrical records, that from the year 1570 to the year 1629, no less than seventeen play-houses had been built ; and that in Shakspeare's time " there were seven principal theatres." These facts are sufficient to shew that the theatrical business, from its first introduction till the renewal of Davenant's patent by Charles II., had never been looked upon as a matter of monopoly, nor of Royal prerogative. But that it is not a matter of Royal prerogative, has been tacitly acknowledged by the simple fact of Mr. Bulwer's bill of last session having been suffered to be introduced into, and passed through the House of Commons, without previously obtaining the Royal assent to the measure.

III. We come now to consider a few of the particulars connected with the history and title of the patents under which the two great theatres pretend to claim their exclusive privileges. In 1684, the two patents were united, by consent of their respective proprietors, and the two companies played together at Drury Lane, under the title of " The King's Company." The two patents having thus fallen into the hands of the same parties, there is every reason to believe that they never again were separated ; in which case, of course, one of them must have fallen into nonentity by merging into the other. Indeed, that such was always considered the case by all writers upon the subject, appears from the fact that, though the patentees were thus " doubly armed" with Davenant's and Killigrew's patents, the united documents of right were only called " The Patent."

But though the two companies and the two patents were thus united in 1684, the union, as far as the actors were concerned, did not long continue. For in lt>90, as before hinted, we find Betterton at the head of an association of disaffected actors, applying for and receiving a separate licence, from William III., under which authority they built and opened the theatre in Portugal Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with Congreve's celebrated comedy of " Love for Love." In 1704, Betterton conveyed his licence to Vanbrugh, who opened the theatre in the Haymarket with it, and Vanbrugh subsequently parted with the same licence to Swiney for a consideration of 51. for each night's performance. Meantime the "Patents" which remained in the hands of the Drury Lane proprietors, at length fell entirely into the hands of the cunning and not over-scrupulous Rich, who, by con- tinued ill-treatment of the actors under his care, at length provoked the indignation of the Lord Chamberlain, who forced him, albeit


armed with two patents, twice to close his theatre, once in. 1707, and again by order of the Queen, in 1709, from which latter period his double patent lay dormant, or " under prohibition," till the accession of George I., when his son opened the Lincoln's Inn Fields house, with the " Recruiting Officer."

All this time, however, there had been still two theatres open by licence, viz.— the Haymarket, by virtue of Betterton's licence, and Drury Lane, under Collier, who, having in 1710 obtained a licence, and taken a lease of the premises, had forcibly ejected the aforesaid Rich from Drury Lane theatre, with his patents in his pocket. But this is not all. In 1714, that is, on the accession of George I., Sir Richard Steele, by means of his interest at court, obtained a patent for the Drury Lane company, under the title of the " Royal Company of Comedians," with which he kept the theatre open till 1720, when having given offence in certain high quarters, this patent was taken from him, and renewed to Booth, Wilks, and Gibber ; under wh ch .renewed licence, and not under Killigrew's Patent, Drury Lane has been kept open ever since.

In 1733, Rich, with his two patents, opened Covent Garden theatre ; and in 1766, Mr. Foote obtained a licence for the little theatre in the Haymarket, as a Theatre " Royal" for " all kinds of dramatic per- formances." The old Haymarket licence, that granted originally to Betterton, and afterwards in the hands of Swiney, was in 1792 per- manently restricted to the performance of Italian Operas, whilst the patentees of Covent Garden, and the licensed " Royal Company" of Drury Lane, stipulated and agreed never to use their patents or licences for the performance of Italian Operas. Since that date, the exclusive privileges of the pretended heirs of Davenant and Killigrew have been further infringed by the licences granted by the Lord Chamberlain to the Lyceum, the Adelphi, the Olympic, and other theatres ; and that without any resistance on the part of the pro- prietors of the said infallible patents. But another, and the last point that we shall adduce, as tending to show that the patents have really fallen into disuse, or that their powers have been tacitly waived, is, that in 1809, when Drury Lane theatre was burned down, the com- pany repaired to, and performed at, the Lyceum theatre, " under a licence from the Lord Chamberlain ;" a licence which, if they really did still possess the original patent under which they claim, was quite unnecessary, as it is in that patent distinctly provided that they might act in their own theatre, or in " any other house where they could be best fitted for that purpose."

From all that has been adduced, it becomes evident : 1st. That Charles II. could not grant patents of monopoly, valid even in his own reign, and much less valid in the reign of William IV., 170 years subsequent. 2ndly. That the King's prerogative is not in- fringed by the proposed extension of theatrical licences. And, lastly, That in accordance with these two principles, all the theatres, for the last 150 years, have been open by virtue of temporary licences, or, as in the case of Covent Garden, which still pretends to hold the two patents, by. toleration ; and not by any sort of prescriptive or " vested right," as asserted by the managers of the two large theatres.

H. O.



A BEAR, whose gambols earn'd his master's food,

(A Piedmontese, who from the Pole had brought him),

One day upon his hind-legs gaily stood, And danced a minuet that had been taught him.

At length being tir'd, to an ape advancing, (A connoisseur), said he " I should be glad

To have your cool opinion of my dancing." The ape replied, " Indeed, 'tis very bad."

" Pshaw," said the bear, "you have not done me justice,

You did not mark my elegance of mien ; I trip so lightly, that the very dust is

Scarcely disturb'd, and that you might have seen."

At this a pig, who likewise had been gazing On the performance, to the ape made answer,

" Your want of taste is certainly amazing, I never saw so beautiful a dancer."

Now vanity a medium most dense is,

Yet by the pig these words were scarcely utter'd, Than they pierc'd through to Bruin's better senses,

He commun'd with himself, and thus he mutter'd

" I must confess the ape's reproof did raise Some doubts within me of the skill I had ;

But now the pig has given me his praise, 1 am convinc'd my dancing must be bad !"

Ye authors, let this just reflection haunt ye Learn ye the truth this fable doth rehearse ;

A wise man's blame is bad enough I grant ye, But a fool's praise is infinitely worse.



" How is it, dearest ?" of the harmless Leech

Enquir'd the Viper, " Since 'tis doubtless true, That the same qualities belong to each,

That I bite when I can, and so do you : " Yet man, unjust and inconsistent still,

Differs in treatment of the two so much ? He suffers you to bite him at your will,

Yet starts and shudders at my slightest touch.''

" Both bite," replied the Leech " this much you're right in ; But there's some difference in our modes of biting : My mouth the dying man to health restores, While the most healthy dies if touched by your's."

Learn from this fable, readers, then, and writers, That though all critics certainly are biters, Yet, that a very wide distinction runs, Between the useful and malignant ones.

( 9 ) O D E.


What line of knowledge high Is alien to the Muse ? She traverses both mind and space, And thro' the earth and sky Her searches can diffuse, And thro* all paths obscure and vast her dark pursuits can trace.

Her ever-piercing eye Can penetrate the depths of earth And forward draw the gem of worth, That buried uselessly did lie 10

With ray in dross imbedded. The quickening beam of life, In happy union wedded She gives to all the tribes of mind, And regions new for haunts can find, Where flowers of every hue, in climate kind, Spring up in lovely pride, or in bright wreaths combin'd.

A Bard* of magic strain

Has sung, that when the great Creator formed This rolling orb, and hung it in the skies, 20

And bade the land and main Its limits each retain, And plac'd the mountains and the vales, And clad with verdure and with woods, And pour'd the fertilizing floods, That near their narrow channels spread Their healthful moisture, and breath'd forth the gales, That clear the pests by vapours fed.

The Muse sat by his side, And with congenial rapture view'd 30

The varied fabric grow ; And, as the wonders started into life

Or shape, full notes of triumph tried, That through the azure vaults resounded wide,

» Collins. M.M. No. 103. C

10 ODE.

As, sprung from Chaos rude, Order its course pursued, And out of elements in strife

Beauty and grandeur by the spell of hands divine could flow. 'Tis thus the maid inspir'd could know

The fountains, and the forms, 40

Whence this great orb of wonders In all its fabric so sublime Its smiling lights, its clouded storms, Its gentle sighs, its roaring thunders, Its change of season, and of clime, The beauty, in its living shapes that warms,

Could know, as present at the sight, When all the wondrous fabric issued into light ! Then why should not this favour'd Muse divine All secrets of our mortal state, Interpret every hidden sign, Resolve the knot of each perplex'd debate,

And where she darts her rays, disperse The clouds that human folly breeds, The glory of our thoughts rehearse,

And paint our airy hopes, and sing our worthiest deeds ? But in the climes of heaven, in air Empyreal who is wont to dwell, Too oft with pain alone can bear

The rude, or vapoury atmosphere, 60

That tuneless makes her shell ! A mortal shape she takes, And mortal passions in her bosom wakes ;

And in a nymph-like form She comes, the gaze and love of men to warm :

But sad and sullen droops Her spirit at the breath of Vice, And, mid tumultuous human groups, Her loftiness to guard her wings from wrong can ill suffice.

She has ubiquity, 70

And wide as is the world, The drops that to her burning vase

Her magic can supply, Are by her mighty right hand hurl'd O'er all the globe ; and by the laws Of nature to the plastic brain Of favoured beings, like the fertile rain, To the creative earth bestow'd, Till working, swelling, and expanding, They the rich elemental treasure goad ; 80

And by her irresistible commanding Form into fabrics, on whose airy towers The eye of rapt imagination pores.

ODE. 11

But where the seed is sown, It is not all delight ; Full many a weed is grown Amid the harvest bright ; And many a cloudy night It costs care, sleepless toil, and skill, To guard against the deadly blight ; 90

For in a fickle sky we still Our trembling tasks fulfil. O, Bard ! on whose renown Envy too oft looks down With spite, and with affected scorn- Full well thou know'st, how deep thou pay'st For the light chaplets that thy brows adorn ; For every melting word thou say'st, An hundred sighs thy breast have torn,

And many a weary day and night hast thou been left forlorn ! 100 With all the vulgar storms of life Thou ill art fram'd to bear the strife ;

And shivering at the breeze, And pierceable by pelting rain, Thou strugglest on in grief and pain ; And down beneath the shade of trees Afar from human haunts wouldst lie Compose thy weary limbs to rest, arid still thy heart to die ;

For thou art mingled up Of thousands of conflicting parts ; 1 10

And when thou drink' st the cup, And when thou feelst the nectar high, that darts

Its inspiration through thy veins, The conflict, that the drop celestial wakes,

The very vital spirit takes And with the earthly elements a mortal fight sustains.

From earliest days, E'en from the cradle's cries, Th' ingredients of unearthly vigour raise

Contentions, where incessant strife, 120

The strings of life, With unrepaird exhausture tires.

And yet sometimes to age The fight, and courage unsubdued, goes on.

Thus Milton war could wage With Satan's stout rebellious crew, Till seven and sixty years had gone ;

And Dryden's dancing rhymes Surviv'd the blight of adverse times :

His mighty strength augmented with his years, 130

And scorn'd to let his worn-out limbs bend to the grave in tears.

What tho' ere youth had fled, Byron was number'd with the dead,

12 ODE.

'Twas not the Muse, whose grief and gloom Brought him thus early to the tomb

But war and wasteful ire, And pestilential fumes of earth., That bred the fever's fire, And on a strangely-fated birth

The dire destruction cast, that broke a heavenly lyre. 140

The bard* of Arun's stream Had still prolonged his dream, And in Elysian gardens slept,

Nor in wild fury wept

His blasted hopes, and with a mangled brain In manhood's vigour to the grave descended,

Had not some fearful stain Of earthly elements too sadly blended Its gross material poison in the brain Of that all-brilliant web, wherein were laid 150

The gleaming hues of heaven's own light In inexpressive splendour bright ; But thus arrives the night, When thro' the blazing skies Were spread a thousand ecstasies

And countless forms of beauty round Gay earth's expanded scenery crown'd, And in an instant draws the veil, And bids the gathering clouds in massy darkness sail.

And thouf on Granta's banks, alone 160

Who spends thy melancholy years

And tremblest at maternal tears. In mortal fate thou couldst but see That woe was human heritage, And melancholy could agree Alone with the o'ershadow'd stage Where thou wert doom'd thy days to tread, And weary out the thoughts thy fears had bred.

But interminged with the gloom

Was many a cheerful beam, that led thee to the tomb. 170 O ! eye of exquisite perfection That could in Nature's smiling scenes View her best charms with magical detection ; That by a touch could find the means To bring before th' enraptur'd sense The associate spirit, that from hence To visionary pleasure, takes us, And with unearthly thoughts awakes us

Up to ideal quintessence :

But yet to homely joys descends, 180

To humblest rural duties bends,

* Collins. t Gray.

ODE. 13

And in the peasant's hut can trace

The elements of happiness !

Thou couldst not, in thy deepest grief,

But find from gifts like this, relief;

And if the virtuous heart shall gain,

For its unmingled purity

Reward in heaven, in seats how high

Dost thou thy lifted rank maintain !

Remembrance of the groveling crew 190

Who scorned thee in thy days of earth ;

Who in their hours of empty show

Thought meanly of thy modest worth ;

Who swept along, and would not deign

Without dispite to cast a look,

Where in thy silent cell Thou didst with melancholy dwell ; And for thy thoughts, and for thy book, The busy crowds of men forsook,

Where, when ambition's vulgar toil 200

Rais'd into wealth, and rank, and power, The very creatures of the soil, That in corruption's sunshine bask their hour, Thou wert unknown, unheeded, unbelieved, But still from secret fountains soothed the wretch whose bosom griev'd. The dark despair, by fits

That sate upon thy brow, Was but a fiend, which always flits

When the muse hears the vow,

And to the bosom's shrine alights, 210

And pours her warmth, and gives her visioned sights.

Then let me turn to thee, O ! holy muse : with worship due

Thine altars to pursue, And be thy priest, and love thy beams, And never wander from thy gleams ; And be thou, in my gloomiest hours, Protectress, kind to me. 217


THE world never produced shall we except Shakspeare ? a greater man than John Milton. And yet, we believe, that even at this day the English poet is very little known by his countrymen. Accordingly, whenever a new poem appears, purporting to be of a religious nature, we constantly find that our modern critics make a present of his name to the new poet ; congratulate themselves on their shew of reading ; and rely, confidently enough, on the credu- lity of the modern book-buying world. Thus, a few years ago, we had Mr. Milton Montgomery, whom, it appears, the present age has ^ already left to the more cool award of posterity ; and now, it seems, Mr. Heraud is come with a very important and imposing appearance to assert his claims to the same honour. " I have as much right to | be here as you have/' he seems to say, in the words of the man about/ to be hanged, to his rival, as he stands beside him on the banks of the T Lethean lake ; and truly, when we look upon the ponderous per- formance before us, we are hardly disposed to question his title.

In truth, upon the present occasion, another deceit has been at- tempted to be played off upon us by some of our modern critics. Ano- ther pasteboard watchcase, made for the hour, has been converted by this magnifying medium, into a Westminster- Abbey. We are cu- rious to behold the new leviathan in poetic literature we expect his appearance, we hail his approach we draw nearer we examine we touch, and lo ! encrusted with an amiable self conceit, protected by a testaceous covering of compressed variety, a Milton oyster !

It is not to be doubted or denied that an attempt to present the modern world with a second epic, is one of no common difficulty and danger. We cannot conceive a man, even of the very highest powers, contemplating such a work without feeling that he is about to en- counter no small share of the one, and is bound to overcome no or- dinary degree of the other. Mr. Heraud truly says that " few are the minds capable of appreciating an endeavour so difficult, yet laud- able ;" but he will not be offended with us if we shew, to the best of our ability, however incapable we may be of appreciating the endeavour, that he has not succeeded in it. He will not deny, in many modern in- stances, the Epopeia has been found to be a poppy— and that the epic has not seldom acted as Ipecacuhana, without, however, its benefi- cial effects.

When Salmoneus proposed to himself to imitate Jove's thunder, he found it necessary to call into requisition a vast deal of brass ; and we have no doubt that he made a great noise in his time, and by the aid of